Sunday, August 31, 2008

oracle 9i installation on redhat 9

Oracle 9i Installation on Redhat 9
1. Introduction
I assume that the reader is familiar with Linux file systems, commands and tools, utilities, shells and shell scripts.
1.1 Overview
This document intends to show a simplified installation sequence for Oracle 9i database on RedHat Linux 8.x and 9.x. It is meant only as an example and if one intends to follow it, he/she should have in mind their own version of Linux, Oracle distribution and specific parameters of their own PC system.
This document also limits the installation information to Linux only, and is not intended to be used for other UNIX brands. To install Oracle 9i in other operating environments, use the Oracle Installation Guide.
I am not a DBA, nor I intend to show high skills in Oracle Administration, so please, do not ask me DBA questions. I will leave this task to the experienced DBAs :)
1.2 Copyright
This document is Copyright 2003 by Evgueni Tzvetanov (Speedy). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
For the full text of the license, please visit the GNU Free Documentation License.
1.3 Disclaimer
Use the information in this document at your own risk. I disavow any potential liability for the contents of this document. Use of the concepts, examples, and/or other content of this document is entirely at your own risk.
All copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.
You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major installation and backups at regular intervals.
1.4 Credits
This document was created, using knowledge, gained from different sources -- books and web sites.
Oracle 9i Installation Guide
Oracle 9i Database Administrator's Guide
DBA's guide to databases on Linux
Oracle 8i: A beginner's guide
Oracle web site (
Feel free to send any comments or suggestions to
2.1 Downloading Oracle 9i database
Obtaining a copy of the Oracle 9i database is easy. Just go to the Oracle web site, click on Download and follow the path based on the distribution. There are few pages you must read before you get to the download links. These pages contain copyright and agreement information, which I suggest you read carefully. All the other information is just statistics. If you are not a member, you have to register on the Oracle web site to be granted access to any distribution, which can be downloaded for free.
The server distributions are in 3 files, named something like:
Other versions might have different names, but the installation could be considered similar.
According to Oracle's installation instructions there are 2 sources, that can be used - CDs and Hard Disk Installation. I used the first one. Downloading the distribution files and creating the CDs (see next item) is a time consuming operation, so arm yourself with patience. This will also require a lot of hard disk space. The 3 distribution files are around 1.5 GB. You will need as much as 3 times this space if you intend to keep the archives, the directories and CD images on your hard disk until you are sure that the CDs are created correctly.
Assuming that you are in the directory where the distributions are downloaded, execute the following with all 3 distribution files from a shell:
gunzip lnx_920_disk1.cpio.gz
cpio -idmv < loop="/dev/loop0" oracle_base="/u01/app/oracle" oracle_home="/u01/app/oracle/product/" oracle_sid="ORTD" path="$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin" ld_library_path="$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/network/lib" ld_assume_kernel="2.4.1" path="$PATH:/usr/local/jre/bin">From version 2.2.1 on, the kernel has dynamically set parameters through the /proc file system and does not need to be re-compiled. For this purpose the /proc file system can be used with great flexibility. Here are the steps needed to update the kernel and set up scripts to run on boot, so that the parameters are set every time the system is booted.
Change current directory to /proc/sys/kernel.
Listed below, are the minimum required sets to be updated (if necessary).
Read and set the semaphore parameters
The values of the semaphore parameters SEMMSL, SEMMNS, SEMOPM, SEMMNI can be read with the following command:
cat sem
The output should be similar to:
250 32000 32 128
which is the list of values of the parameters in the above list order. Now set the values with the following command:
echo 100 32000 100 100 > sem
Read and set the shared memory parameters
Shared memory parameters SHMMAX, SHMMIN, SHMMNI, SHMSEG can be read by using the following command:
cat shm_param
where shm_param is one of shmmax, shmmin, shmmni, shmall, etc. Now use the following commands to set values for the necessary parameters:
echo 2147483648 > shmmax
echo 4096 > shmmni
echo 2097152 > shmall
The above set of commands can be combined in a shell script and can be run on boot in the run level, to decide which Oracle database will be used, but keep in mind these parameters should be set before the database instance is started up. Please refer to the Linux Administrator's guide for more information on run-levels and startup init scripts.
File handles
Set the file handles using the following commands:
echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
ulimit -n 65536
Set the sockets using the following command:
echo 1024 65000 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Process Limit
Set the process limit using the following command:
ulimit -u 16384
Groups and accounts
As with all Oracle databases, 9i requires an account for the owner, traditionally named oracle. The requirements for the groups are a bit unusual; there must be a group for OSDBA, which by default is named dba. Oracle requires also second group (usually called oinstall) to assign authority to install software. Another group for operators should also be present (but is optional), used to grant operator access to certain groups of users. So here is the sequence of commands to create the groups:
groupadd dba
groupadd oinstall
groupadd oper
After the groups are created, we can add an account for the Oracle owner:
useradd -c DBA -g oinstall -G dba oracle
which will create the oracle account, with primary group oinstall and secondary - dba.
In addition, users who will use this database instance can be added to the dba group in the /etc/group file.
Mount points and permissions
Oracle 9i installation requires a minimum of two mount points -- one for the software and one for the database files. If OFA (Optimal Flexible architecture) is used, then the minimum mount points are four -- one for the software and three (or more) for the database files.
Oracle documentation recommends each mount point to be on a separate physical disk, but for a minimal use as in this case, the mount point could be directories. The names of the mount points are traditionally /u01, /u02, /u03, etc. They can be created as subdirectories anywhere on the system and linked with root directory links. In my case I created the directories (only 2 of them - /u01 and /u02) under the root directory.
Here is a short list of commands to create and prepare the mount point (as root):
mkdir /u01 /u02
chown oracle.oinstall /u01 /u02
chmod 755 /u01 /u02
The last two commands set the ownership of the installation directories to the user authorized to install Oracle 9i, but after the installation by administrator's choice the topmost directories can be switched back to root ownership.
Permissions for file creation
In most cases the umask should be set to 0022. When installing Oracle databases it is recommended that the umask is checked and set to 0022 if not set properly. This will ensure that all the files during the installation are created with proper attributes. Use the following commands:
to test the mask, and:
umask 0022
to set the mask. This command can also be set on the profile in case it isn't the default value of 0022.
3.5 Setup tasks to perform as oracle user
Before starting the installation log in as user oracle in an X terminal and make sure that the DISPLAY and PATH variables contain the proper values. The DISPLAY variable should specify the name, server number and the screen number of the system, and where the Oracle Universal Installer will be run. This step is only necessary if you are using remote X server. In case of local installation, if you can run X Window Manager you will be able to run the installer without a problem. If there is a problem running the installer because of the DISPLAY variable, execute:
xhost +localhost
export DISPLAY=localhost:0.0
This should do the trick.
In addition as oracle user execute:
and check for all the previously mentioned environment variables. If there is a suspicion that one or more are not set properly, they should be corrected and the environment reloaded.
4. Installation
4.1 Mounting the CDs (before or during the installation)
Usually RedHat Linux has automount, which mounts the CD after the CD-ROM door is closed, but in case this has to be done manually, here it is briefly.
Invoke a terminal window and become superuser. Leave the terminal open during the course of the installation. It will become handy in time.
Place the first CD in your CD-ROM device. Check if you have a directory to mount the CDs in. Usually it should be /mnt/cdrom, but if this is not your favorite, just name it as you wish. Now execute the following command (assuming that the mount directory is /mnt/cdrom):
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
This will mount your CD onto the /mnt/cdrom directory. This will be your source installation directory.
During the installation, Oracle Universal Installer will ask for a CD change, so if the CD can't be unmounted automatically, go to your root terminal and do the following:
cd /mnt
This will unmount the CD and open your CD-ROM. Now place the next CD and close the CD-ROM. Use the mount command again if the CD is not mounted automatically and switch to your installation screen to continue with the process.
4.2 Running the installer
After mounting the first disk, invoke a new terminal window and change directory to /mnt/cdrom. This is your installation mount point. From here run:
./runInstaller &
Additionally the file index.html from the same directory can be opened in a browser and from there you can read and follow Oracle documentation during the installation procedure.
4.3 Installation screens and steps
Oracle Universal Installer 2.2 has a simple and intuitive interface. You may choose to skip this section of the Installation item and follow your instincts, which might be a very good decision. The screens are self-explanatory and very nicely ordered in a good, logical queue.
In case you want to verify where you are in the installation, just compare your process with the following descriptions of screens and steps.
Welcome Screen
>From the welcome screen you may select to install or uninstall products. If this is the first installation, click Next to continue.
A new dialog window (Inventory Location) appears. It prompts you for an inventory directory for the installation(s) now and in the future. Click OK if you agree, otherwise enter the desired inventory directory.
UNIX Group Name Screen
This screen asks for your Oracle Installation Group, which by default is ointsall. If you wish to change this name or use another (special) group for further installation, now is the time to tweak the groups. Otherwise enter ointsall and click Next. A dialog appears, showing that you have to use your root terminal (remember when we opened it before). Go to the root terminal and follow the instructions on the screen, which are simply to execute the script in /tmp/ called
If successfully run, you should see on the screen:
Creating Oracle Inventory pointer file (/etc/oraInst.loc)
Changing groupname of /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory to oinstall.
Now switch back to the dialog and click Continue.
File Locations Screen
This screen shows the source and destination file locations for the installation process. If your environment variables are okay you should not change anything, but if you wish to do so, do it carefully and know what you are doing! You can simply click Next.
What follows is a long reading of the disk and a progress bar on the top right of this screen. Just be patient.
Available Products Screen
This screen shows the available products in this installation set. Since we are installing only the database, the first option (which is the default) is the one that is interesting to us. It actually includes some of the products listed in the next sections. Click Next.
Installation Types Screen
Since our example shows Standard Edition Installation, click Standard Edition. You may select Enterprise, but the path from this point on might be different and you might need to select other options. Anyway, it is the choice of the person who is installing.
Click Next. Another pause (not long) and then you will go to the next step.
Database Configuration Screen
This screen allows the operator to select what purpose the database will serve, so that the installation will be able to adjust parameters accordingly. I've chosen General Purpose and clicked Next. There is another wait period (short also).
Database Identification Screen
Here the operator is prompted to enter a global database name. The text on this screen is quite explanatory. For our example I entered:
since my database server's hostname is zeus. Use your hostname in its place and click Next.
Database File Location Screen
This screen prompts you to enter the location where the physical database files will be situated. It also recommends you put the data files on a separate disk (directory). That's why I entered:
instead of the default value. Click Next when done.
Database Character Set Screen
This screen allows you to choose different character sets for your database. I have left it as it is: Use the Default Character Set. Click Next.
Summary Screen
If you see this screen, your preparation for the installation process with the OUI is done. Now you may browse the contents of the installation tree and see what you have chosen. This might make you go back and fix stuff, if you don't agree with the list. Otherwise click Install, and the installation process will start.
Install Screen
This is a very long-lasting, boring screen, which requires CD changing from time to time. It displays a progress bar and counts the percentage to display the overall progress by items.
The installation process is very long. First the software components are installed and then everything is linked.
Just find something to kill some time with and from time to time peek at the screen to see if the CD needs changing.
IMPORTANT! In my case (I did the installation twice) there was an Error screen around 79% in the linkage process. The error dialog showed the following information:
Error in invoking target install of makefile
I clicked Ignore and in both installations it seemed there was no problem to finish the linkage.
A dialog is popped up when the linkage is finished. It prompts for some terminal commands that have to be executed before the installation process completes. Basically, there is a script called in the $ORACLE_HOME directory, which should be executed as root, from your root terminal. The execution itself takes some time and a lot of HDD activity, so be patient and don't worry.
Configuration Tools Screen
The configuration tools screen tries to execute 3 tasks and reports failures for all of them. Here is how I solved the problem. In the $ORACLE_HOME directory there is a link, named JRE, which links to the Oracle JRE directory. Delete this link and create one to your own JRE distribution, which was described earlier. Here is the list of commands:
rm -f JRE
ln -s /usr/local/jre/ JRE
After executing these commands, try selecting one by one the items in the Tool Name column of the table and clicking Retry. If this does not work, don't worry. These are optional in the installation session and you can do them later.
If the last (optional) tasks do not execute, I have a special set of instructions on how to do at least two of them. But first, I want to stress on having Oracle documentation handy, and that you try to read between the lines sometimes when you troubleshoot your installation. If the conditions are right, you should not get any serious errors in your session, but in case you get one, check all the initial conditions, file and directory permission,s and disk space.
You can easily delete everything and start from scratch if you just purge the contents of the Oracle mount point directories (/u01, /u02, etc.), and delete the file oratab in the /etc directory. There is one more set of files you may need to delete so that there is no trace of Oracle on your system. They are in the /usr/local/bin directory and the names are oraenv, coraenv and dbhome. However you may leave them there and on your next installation the installer will ask you if you want to keep them.
Now the optional tasks:
Net Configuration Assistant
To run this, go to the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and from there just execute:
./netca &
This application will setup one of four tasks. Listener is what you really want to set. The others are not as important, but try setting them as well. Before setting the listener, you might have a listener already running. Check this by executing the following command:
ps afx | grep LISTEN | grep -v grep
If you get a line similar to:
15922 ? S 0:00 /u01/app/oracle/product/ LISTENER
you've got a listener running. Stop the listener with the following command from the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory:
./lsnrctl stop
You might need to also delete the existing listener and create a new one. This depends on you completely. Just follow the natural flow of the application. At the final round the new listener will be started if created a new one of course.
Database Configuration Assistant
To run this, go to $ORACLE_HOME/bin and execute:
./dbca &
This application is probably the most important in the set. It helps you create and configure your database. If a database was not created during the installation session or a restart of the applications, as mentioned before, this is the one you would want to run to create your database.
While you have not used the database yet, you might want to delete and recreate it. You may do it from here. This document can not include all the functionality of the application, but since it is a GUI, it is fairly easy to perform tasks with it.
Personally I prefer to create it from here, so that I have control of all the parameters needed, especially the directories where the data files will be created. Choose Typical when prompted for the database parameters. The next screen, with the tree-like structure allows you to set the location of your database files. Instead of {ORACLE_BASE}, you can put /u02 for example. This will put the database files to be used in your /u02/oradata/SID directory. This is just an example. It is up to you to decide how to spread your database(s) directory tree.
At the end of the database creation you will be prompted for passwords for the users SYS and SYSTEM. Enter them (with confirmations), remember them, and exit (this works as OK if you haven't guessed it already). That should be it. Now execute:
ps afx
and the screen should contain lines similar to the following:

1 ? S 0:04 init
2 ? SW 0:01 [keventd]

..... Lots of other lines we are not interested in...

11665 ? S 0:00 ora_pmon_ORTD
11667 ? S 0:00 ora_dbw0_ORTD
11671 ? S 0:00 ora_lgwr_ORTD
11673 ? S 0:00 ora_ckpt_ORTD
11675 ? S 0:00 ora_smon_ORTD
11677 ? S 0:00 ora_reco_ORTD
11679 ? S 0:00 ora_cjq0_ORTD
11681 ? S 0:02 ora_qmn0_ORTD
11683 ? S 0:00 ora_s000_ORTD
11685 ? S 0:00 ora_d000_ORTD
11812 pts/1 S 0:00 /u01/app/oracle/product/ LISTENER -inherit

If you see this picture, this is your database instance running. The last line in the above example is the listener (it might be somewhere else on your screen).
Congratulations! You've successfully finished your installation!
Troubleshooting updates
The following is an update, courtesy of Rene Bauer. You may encounter problems with the following items:
JRE version compatibility
Missing database configuration file
Legato Single Server Version installation failure
The JRE compatibility problem was not reported only by Rene, but I've got few more emails about it. The problem exists because RedHat 8 and 9 come with gcc version 3.2.x, but some older versions of JRE are compiled with gcc 2.9.x. The solution is to download the latest JRE version. At the time of this update the version is 1.4.1, and since there is no jre executable, run the following command to create the proper sym link:
ln -s $JRE_DIR/bin/java $JRE_DIR/bin/jre
where $JRE_BIN is your jre bin directory.
The second update is in regard to a missing configuration file after database creation. The file init{ORACLE_SID}.ora should be created by default in your $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ directory.
The installer creates a file called spfile{ORACLE_SID}.ora, so a sym link can be created to mimic the missing file. Change your working directory to be $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ and execute:
ln -s spfile{ORACLE_SID}.ora init{ORACLE_SID}.ora
cp /u01/app/oracle/admin/test/pfile/initORTD.ora.642002224936 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initORTD.ora

My solution: There is always a file after the installation with database creation called init.ora. I simply copied this file to init{ORACLE_SID}.ora. Change your working directory to be $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ and execute:
cp init.ora initORTD.ora
The third problem is in regard to Oracle's installation process, installing Legato Single Server Version. I did not have this sort of problem, but here is Rene's version, which I'll try to make as short as possible: The last file, executed on Oracle installation's request had caused an error while attempting to install LSSV. According to Rene, RedHat 8 and 9 come with ncurses5, but by default the ncurses4 compatibility package is not installed, so after it is installed, the LSSV installation problem disappears.
These may be not the last problems to be solved, so I encourage any comments and additions, which I can add to the Troubleshooting section. I'd appreciate any feedback, which can improve quality of this document.
5. Post-installation
The Oracle Installation Guide describes a very long list of procedures to be done after the installation process. Some of them are necessary, some of them probably in your instance you will never need, but most importantly this document will not repeat them.
Please refer to the Installation Guide for this procedures. Here I will describe steps that are very helpful for the minimal installation that I used, and seem enough for the basic database operations.
5.1 Editing the oratab file
There is one step in particular that is important, so that you may start and shutdown the database from the command prompt any time, or to allow the database to be autostarted during boot. Go to the /etc directory and edit the file oratab. In the line:
set the last value to Y and it should read:
Now save the file and go back to your Oracle home directory.
5.2 Script for automatic startup on boot
It is generally a good idea to automate the database startup at boot time on your database server. In this case you will need a script, which can be included in the run-level sets. Here is an example only. Please, tune it to your own machine and run-levels!

# Run-level Startup script for the Oracle Instance and Listener
# chkconfig: 345 91 19
# description: Startup/Shutdown Oracle listener and instance


# if the executables do not exist -- display error

if [ ! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart -o ! -d $ORA_HOME ]
echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"
exit 1

# depending on parameter -- startup, shutdown, restart
# of the instance and listener or usage display

case "$1" in
# Oracle listener and instance startup
echo -n "Starting Oracle: "
su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start"
su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart
touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
echo "OK"
# Oracle listener and instance shutdown
echo -n "Shutdown Oracle: "
su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop"
su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/oracle
echo "OK"
$0 stop
$0 start
echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart|reload"
exit 1
exit 0

You can simply copy and paste this file into your system and change it according to your settings.
Once you copy and edit the file, move it to the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory and change it's ownership and the attributes to be the same as the other files in the directory.
To do that and the following operations, you will need to be logged as root user.
The fifth line of this code reads:
# chkconfig: 345 91 19
It is used by the chkconfig command when setting the scripts in the run-levels. The value 345 lists the run-levels in which we allow Oracle to run, so if you want to be able to run an Oracle instances only in levels 3 and 5, then change this value to 35. The next value (91) describes the order number in the startup sequence. This means that if there are 100 startup processes, the Oracle startup will be the 91st to run. The next number is the shutdown number, meaning that when the system is shutdown and there are for example 100 processes to be shutdown, the Oracle process will be 19 in order. These numbers are used to set the relative position of the Oracle startup and shutdown processes. They are set here as an example. You can change them, but keep in mind that Oracle instancse can not be run without some processes in the system running beforehand.
Now execute the following command:
chkconfig -add oracle
This will add the corresponding links in the run-level directories as listed in the beginning of the script.
To test the newly created automation, you have to reboot your system, but remember that before this automation runs, the kernel parameters should be set. In fact you may include the kernel tune commands in your start) section of the above script.
5.3 Testing your installation with SQL*Plus
If you have installed a typical database, there should be a user created called scott. The password is tiger. Just execute the following:
sqlplus scott/tiger
which should run the SQL*Plus interpreter and log in as user scott. You should see the screen like the following:

SQL*Plus: Release - Production on Fri Feb 21 10:55:45 2003

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Connected to:
Oracle9i Release - Production
JServer Release - Production

Disconnected from Oracle9i Release - Production
JServer Release - Production

For login to the oracle enterprise manager
#oemapp console
Before exiting you can do some SQL on your own to just see the tables in this database schema or whatever you have in mind.
For more information

No comments: